Types of Forks in Crypto Explained.

Welcome to another edition of my short series “Crypto Jargon”.
In these series, I break down the complex terminology we use in reference to cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.

In this article are featured the following acronyms for software changes and upgrades (known as software forks):

  • Soft Fork (SF)
  • Hard Fork (HF)
  • User-Activated Soft Fork (UASF)
  • User-activated Hard Fork (UAHF)
  • Miner-Activated Soft Fork (MASF)
  • Contentious & Non-Contentious Forks.

These are some of the types of forks most commonly referred to, so let’s explain the differences.

First, what is a fork?

In programming terms, a fork is a (permanent) modification, upgrade, divergence or simply any change in the original code of a software.

Forks generally happen in the crypto world when new “rules” are built into a blockchain’s code. Sometimes a fork is used to test a process, but with cryptocurrencies, it is mostly used to implement a fundamental change or to create a new asset with similar (but not equal) characteristics as the original.

There are two main types of programming fork: hard and soft.

FORKS

A Soft Fork is an upgrade in the software that is compatible with the original version. When the changes are implemented, they are backward compatible, meaning that even users who haven’t upgraded to the new software, are still able to run their nodes and mine blocks on that blockchain. In the case of Segwit for instance, which was a soft fork on the bitcoin blockchain, users and node operators could choose if they want to run the older version (legacy) or the new version (segwit) of the protocol. And still, to this day there are certain economical nodes, such as the Blockchain.com Wallet and KeepKey for instance, which are running the legacy version and you can tell by the wallet address – a Legacy Bitcoin address begins with the number 1 while a Segwit wallet address begins with the number 3.

A User Activated Soft Fork (UASF) is when a soft fork is activated on a specified date and is enforced by full nodes; a concept sometimes referred to as the economic majority. A UASF requires a lot of industry support and coordination. Originally Segwit was going to be implemented as a UASF and as a response to that Bitmain, a major mining firm, announced A contingency plan against it in the form of a User Activated Hard Fork UAHF which they did anyway and thus Bitcoin Cash was born.

A Hard Fork is an upgrade in the software that requires all users to switch to the new version of that software. It is not backward compatible, meaning that anyone who wants to mine blocks on that blockchain has to use the latest version of the code.

It can be a “Planned hard fork” – which is simply an upgrade to the protocol that had already been made clear in advance by the project developers and there’s no conflict in its implementation. Usually, a high-degree of consensus from the project developers and the community would have already been reached, before the hard fork occurred. Examples of a planned hard fork is Monero’s hard fork in January of 2017, which saw the addition of a new privacy feature known as Ring Confidential Transactions (RingCT) and the 2019 Ethereum change to a Proof Of Stake protocol which was announced years ahead of implementation.

In this regard it’s also known as a non-contentious hard fork which means everyone upgrades and moves on.

The opposite is a “Contentious hard fork“, which is not being accepted by everyone and some users decide to continue running the older version and this way the chain splits into two: one path which follows the new, upgraded blockchain; and one path which continues along with the old blockchain version. This is how Ethereum Classic was created and also Bitcoin Cash when it split from Bitcoin in 2017.

A hard fork can also be initiated if a 51% attack occurs, or due to a bug in the system so it doesn’t always create a new coin.

A User Activated Hard Fork (UAHF) is where developers add a mandatory rule set to change the node software. These changes make previously invalid blocks become valid after a flag day, which does not require a majority of hash power to be enforced.

The most significant example for applying UASF and UAHF is the forking of Ethereum.

In May 2006, Ethereum started The DAO project. But a month later the project was hacked and a sum of about $55,000,000 was stolen. This amounted to more than 10% of the circulating supply of Ether at the time. After the incident three solutions were suggested:

  1. To accept the theft and do nothing
  2. To roll back the Blockchain to the time before the theft which would be through a hard fork
  3. To accept all the transactions to the hacker’s wallets false and return the money back which would be done as a soft fork.

The Ethereum community chose to go with the second proposal, but some users weren’t happy with that. They assumed that “code is law” and is the main concept of cryptocurrency. These users accepted the theft and decided to stick to the original version without any rollback, so when the hard fork was executed, there were two chains. One that is known as Ethereum, ETH, and another, known as Ethereum Classic, ETC.

The signaling for consensus on a fork proposal can also be handed to the miners which are known as a Miner Activated Soft/Hard Fork (MASF).

There are also Accidental forks – a rare occasion when two or more blocks have the same block height, forking the blockchain. Typically occurs when two or more miners find blocks at nearly the same time. It can also happen as part of an attack.

As you probably know I also post these definitions on my YouTube channel, here’s my episode with today’s terms:

If you liked this article, you will most certainly love my eBook “Crypto Jargon A-Z” – this is the most up-to-date publication of its kind. With over 700 terms, acronyms and trading slang, it contains everything related to cryptocurrencies and blockchain tech – all the complex terminology we use in media articles, blogs, forum chats, social media posts and of course video content too so go check it out on Amazon at one of the following links:

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US https://www.amazon.com/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
UK https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Germany https://www.amazon.de/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
France https://www.amazon.fr/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Spain https://www.amazon.es/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Italy https://www.amazon.it/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Netherlands https://www.amazon.nl/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Japan https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Brazil https://www.amazon.com.br/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Canada https://www.amazon.ca/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Mexico https://www.amazon.com.mx/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Australia https://www.amazon.com.au/dp/B07Y9DT3H6
Asia-Pacific https://www.amazon.in/dp/B07Y9DT3H6

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🏆Exchanges I use for trading crypto:

Binance
Kucoin 
Bittrex
Bitfinex
HitBtc 

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Where I buy crypto:

BitPanda (Europe)
Cex (Global)
Coinmama (Global)
Changelly (good for instant coins swaps)(Global)
Payeer (Europe, Asia, alternative to paypal)
Bitfinex 
Coinbase (USA, EU, Africa) Get $10 worth of Bitcoin on your first $100 crypto purchase with this link: http://bit.do/coinbase_join

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Where I store my crypto:

  • Ledger Nano – the best hardware wallet (offline storage)
  • Trezor – also one of the best wallets out there.
  • Exodus – desktop wallet
  • Coinomi – mobile phone wallet with instant coin swap feature
  • Crypto.com – mobile wallet and exchange

War on Privacy Coins – the future of Anonymous crypto transactions is bleak…

There have been a number of crypto exchanges that recently delisted privacy coins from their platforms. The likes of Zcash, Monero, ZEN, PIVX and many other privacy oriented coins have been taking a beating from the regulated exchanges due to compliance concerns raised after the FATF ruled them unfit to meet AML criteria and threatened to follow up with closures, and other compliance penalties to those who do not follow their “Travel Rule” about reporting all details on their customers transactions.

Is this a WAR on PRIVACY COINS? What is the future of anonymity in crypto?

These are two of the questions discussed in my recent chat with Rob Viglione – co-founder of ZEN (Horizen) – a privacy oriented coin and multi-facet crypto project that is working toward creating greater privacy to the end-user.

This is my Crypto Corner video podcast episode #80 and you can watch it here in its entirety:


🚩Relevant links:

To get ZEN for free use this link: https://getzen.cash/auth/register?ref=126946

Find out more about Horizen: https://www.horizen.global/technology/
Academy : https://academy.horizen.global/
Bloomberg article: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-09-19/privacy-coins-face-existential-threat-amid-regulatory-crackdown
Nodes count : https://medium.com/coinmonks/ranking-cryptos-by-number-of-nodes-57a12e4ae51a?

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Where I buy crypto:

►BitPanda (Europe) http://bit.do/bit-panda

►Cex (Global) http://bit.do/c-io

►Coinmama (Global) http://bit.do/coinma

►Changelly (good for instant coins swaps)(Global) http://bit.do/changelli

►Payeer (Europe, Asia, alternative to paypal) http://bit.do/payeer-join

►Bitfinex https://bitfinex.com/?refcode=Zh_5OPGD

►Coinbase (USA, EU, Africa) Get $10 worth of Bitcoin on your first $100 crypto purchase with this link: http://bit.do/coinbase_join

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🏆Exchanges I use for trading crypto: ►Binance http://bit.do/B1NANCE

►Kucoin http://bit.do/ku-coin

►Bittrex bittrex.com

►Bitfinex https://bitfinex.com/?refcode=Zh_5OPGD

►HitBtc http://bit.do/hit-btc

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🔑My Top hardware Wallet for Crypto is Ledger Nano X (offline wallet/cold storage) – http://bit.do/ledgerNano
here’s my tutorial on How to set it up – https://youtu.be/lHzFY4ucTYQ

And lastly, here is my top choice for safe storage of my top cryptocurrencies, check out the Ledger Nano S, it can store a large selection of coins, it is a definite MUST HAVE.

Ledger Nano S - The secure hardware wallet

 

5 Reasons to use Kucoin exchange

Kucoin exchange is having a great choice of cryptocurrencies, all the most popular coins are listed as well as many lesser known ones and their bonus features are what really sets Kucoin exchange apart from its competition….

I’ve written about my preference to Kucoin exchange on a few occasions and I will point out here the top 5 things I consider to be the main points of advantage over other exchanges.

Now, I am not trying to say that Kucoinis the best exchange out there, I wouldn’t go as far as to claim it is better than Binance, Bitfinex, Bittrex or the other giants on the market, after all, we all know that liquidity is king and this is why Binanceis always coming on top of the list when comparing exchanges. However, there are a few things that Kucoin does differently and these make it one of my top exchanges to use, so here we go.

  1. Choice of coins.

    Kucoin exchange supports a great variety of small-cap altcoins that are often in their infancy which makes it ideal for those who prefer to trade the less-known coins for greater gains. It is not unusual to catch a winning trade with 10x or more gains on a low-cap cryptocurrency (experience needed*) and this is one of the main reasons why many traders prefer Kucoin over the more established competitors.

  2.  “Buy with Fiat” option.

    Kucoin exchange is one of a few that offers the option to buy crypto directly with a credit card on their platform which for many is an important feature when starting their online trading experience.

  3.  Lesser fees.

    Compared to many other exchanges, Kucoin exchange has trading fees starting at 0.1% which is below the industry standard (most commonly fees range between 0.15% to 0.25%), with the option to reduce your fees further by holding a certain amount of KSC which is the native Kucoin token.

  4.  Numerous competitions.

    The incentives run by Kucoin exchange are a great way to get some extra coins for free. Whether by taking part in competitions or completing tasks. These are happening pretty much every week.

  5.  Regular airdrops to token holders.

    If competitions are not your cup of tea, then you can just get lucky one day and find out that you’re being awarded an airdrop simply for holding a certain coin. This happened to me on a few occasions (see screenshots below), most recently for having some Tron in my account which was a nice bonus.
    They do airdrops quite often and they always make announcements about these on their telegram news channel so it’s good to keep an eye on these.

 

And here’s an EXTRA point to make: The Kucoin Bonus offers.
Members of this exchange can make additional profit from the KCS – the Kucoin native token that pays a daily bonus for holding the tokens and the second offering is the commission-based affiliate side of the business that will bring some extra coins to your wallet should you choose to promote them.

kucoin-referral bonus.jpgI am taking advantage of both of these bonus offerings and I am getting small rewards on a daily basis paid to me for holding some KCS coins and from the fees that Kucoin collects from the trading activity of my peeps so while this is by no means big money, it’s still something extra that comes passively and without any effort, so it’s worth considering it.

The bottom line is: Kucoin exchange is having a great choice of cryptocurrencies, all the most popular coins are listed as well as many lesser known ones and their bonus features are what really sets Kucoin exchange apart from its competition so go check it out here >>> kucoin-exchange <<<

 


Other posts you may like:

KuCoin Exchange – The Basics

Buy Bitcoin (and other crypto) in Kucoin exchange with a Credit Card.

 

LEDGER BLACK FRIDAY SALE is ON

It’s that time of the year again.

My favourite hardware wallet – Ledger Nano is having a massive sale offer ALL WEEK.

I’ve been using the Ledger devices ever since I got my first Bitcoin and throughout the years they improved their devices so much.
Ledger has been a solid little vault since the early days but the latest model and the upgrades to their firmware made it even better. Gone are the days where we had to choose between only 3 or 4 coins to store, the early Nano S model was having a very limited capacity but with the latest upgrade to its firmware, we can now store up to 10 different coin apps on the device and there are over 1000 to choose from.

What’s even better, the latest model – NANO X can store over 100 and it even has a Bluetooth option to navigate it from your mobile phone on the go – which is what I’m doing most of the time and this has really changed everything for me. I used to store smaller amounts of my coins in cloud wallets just to have the convenience to use them when I’m not at home or on short travels where I don’t carry my laptop with me but since I got the Nano X I don’t have to worry about this anymore, I just sync it with my phone app and I’m able to access all my crypto assets from anywhere – how good is that.

I’ve posted many tutorials on the Ledger devices over the past few years, the latest one was my Start-to-Finish tutorial on how to set up your Nano X device and how to restore it as a previous device – if you have already used a previous one, so make sure you check these out too.

So, if you’ve been eager to get your hands on one of these devices, now is your chance to get them at a great discount all week…

Yes, it’s really a week-long black Friday event and the sales are now ON. Click the banner below or to the right ——>>>
or use this link  to get the discount offer straight from their official website.

https://shop.ledger.com/pages/black-Friday?r=ea2f

Thank me later.

Ledger Nano X - The secure hardware wallet


Other posts you might like:

ICO, IEO, STO, IPO and FREECO Explained.

Segwit, Lightning Network & Big-blockers Vs Small-blockers Explained.

ADDY | WIRE | WALLET ADDRESS|Private and Public Key Explained.

20 Facts about Bitcoin you need to know

How to pay LESS FEES for Bitcoin transactions

Top Facts about Bitcoin on its 11th Anniversary.

It’s 31 October 2019 and today marks exactly 11 years since the release of Bitcoin’s whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto. On this day in 2008 the first cryptocurrency was conceived and it created a monumental shift in the way we perceive the future of money and provided a revolutionary new direction for resisting censorship from the corrupt central banking system that has been ruling over our lives for over a century.

Indeed, censorship resistant ownership of one’s capital is a giant leap for anyone who’s ever been a victim of unfair seizure of their funds by the authorities and there are many an example of such abuses of power throughout the years across the world and even though most people today see Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies mainly as means to become rich quick, the true essence of this new asset class lies in the fact that it provided a real opportunity to combat the dangers of  having one’s capital taken away from them.

I don’t want to undermine the fact that Bitcoin did create hundreds of millionaires throughout the past decade and continues to do so, nor do I try to oppose the concept of shifting power and capital from the centralised banking system back to the common folk. This was all very beneficial to everyone who was bright enough to enter this space in the early years and especially to those risk-takers who believed in the power of the digital currency from the early days when it was in its infancy and the rest of world was completely dismissive of it (myself included in those sceptics), so let’s take a moment and reflect on what we have achieved in the past 11 years.

Here are just a handful of examples of what Bitcoin managed to bring to the world and why this (still hugely volatile) digital currency is so important to the world and everyone who is involved in its network.

Blockchain-Bild

  • Blockchain – possibly the biggest and most widely recognised invention that Bitcoin brought to the world is the creation of a decentralised, independently shared and publicly accessible and verifiable record of data that is immutable and resistant to censorship or control from any one entity.
    There have been many nay-sayers and sceptics of Bitcoin but even the hardest opposition to crypto, such as the central banking system, admits that Blockchain technology is the future and recognise it as one of the greatest innovations of our time.

 

  • The first Bitcoin transaction in the real world was for 2 pizzas on May 22 2009 which became known as Bitcoin Pizza Day. The guy who wanted to be known as the first person to buy something with Bitcoin paid 10 000 bitcoins for the pizzas which today comes to about 93 million US dollars.

 

  • Bitcoin has created more millionaires than any other asset in the past decade. The exact number is not recorded but it’s a fact that there are even a handful of billionaires created by investments in Bitcoin.

100685077-GettyImages-167578473

  • Over the past decade we managed to mine more than 85% of the total bitcoin supply which is capped at 21 million coins. Today the circulating supply amounts to 18,022,262 coins produced by 601,794 blocks according to coinmarketcap.

 

  • Bitcoin’s network consists of thousands of computers worldwide is more powerful than the world’s top 5 supercomputers combined. It has never been hacked and is fully decentralised.

 

  • It took 4 years for bitcoin to go from $0 to $1000 and less than 1 year to jump from $1000 to $20 000 (back in 2017). Since then the price has corrected and we experienced a downtrend in 2018 but things picked up again and the $20k price tag is once again within reach in the foreseeable future.

 

  • Bitcoin’s produce is halved every 4 years and although we have already mined the majority of it, it will take us another 100+ years until we mine the last satoshi.

roi-stocks-btc

  • In its decade of existence bitcoin has outperformed every other stock or asset in the world in terms of price appreciation, surpassing even the value of Gold and Silver and bringing in much higher Return of Investment to its hodlers.

 

  • The term HODL was born by a simple mistake in a drunken post on a Bitcoin forum and it became a worldwide acronym used by everyone, even mainstream media.

 

  • The smallest spendable denomination of Bitcoin is called a “satoshi” in reference to its creator and this month the term was added to the Oxford English Dictionary. The term “bitcoin” was already added to the dictionary back in 2014 and was defined as: “a digital currency in which transactions can be performed without the need for a central bank.”

 

  • Bitcoin gave birth to a whole new industry called cryptocurrencies and today there are more than 2000 of them, many of which are trying to add new use cases and go beyond the monetary use of bitcoin.

 

  • There are currently 9255 public nodes running on the Bitcoin network. (at the time of writing, but this number is changing daily.)

 

  • The price of Bitcoin is by far the biggest catalyst in its popularity amongst the retail investor and to date it’s price appreciation comes to a whopping +292,635.11% since its conception.

 

If you liked this article, consider following this blog and leave a comment below. I would like to hear your thoughts on Bitcoin and whether you are a fan or a sceptic.
I also run a YouTube channel where I post various content related to cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.


🚩My book “Crypto Jargon A to Z” – the most comprehensive dictionary to date is out now.

Over 700 definitions of terms, acronyms and all the crypto slang people use in their market analysis, blogs and media articles related to blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies.
Grab your copy today: www.ojjordan.com/cryptojargon

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🏆Exchanges I use for trading crypto:

Binance
Kucoin 
Bittrex
Bitfinex
HitBtc 

=== ===

Where I buy crypto:

BitPanda (Europe)
Cex (Global)
Coinmama (Global)
Changelly (good for instant coins swaps)(Global)
Payeer (Europe, Asia, alternative to paypal)
Bitfinex 
Coinbase (USA, EU, Africa) Get $10 worth of Bitcoin on your first $100 crypto purchase with this link: http://bit.do/coinbase_join

=== ===

Where I store my crypto

  • Ledger Nano – the best hardware wallet (offline storage)
  • Trezor – also one of the best wallets out there.
  • Exodus – desktop wallet
  • Coinomi – mobile phone wallet with instant coin swap feature
  • Crypto.com – mobile wallet and exchange

Ledger Nano X - The secure hardware wallet

 

How to prepare for the next Bull Run…

I discuss the crypto markets and this time I am talking about the coming bull market and how to diversify a little so that you can get full advantage of the price appreciation that will follow soon.

I just posted the latest episode of Crypto Corner – the video podcast where I discuss the crypto markets and this time I am talking about the coming bull market and how to diversify a little so that you can get full advantage of the price appreciation that will follow soon. Take a look.

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🏆Exchanges I use for trading crypto:

Binance
Kucoin 
Bittrex
Bitfinex
HitBtc 

=== ===

Where I buy crypto:

BitPanda (Europe)
Cex (Global)
Coinmama (Global)
Changelly (good for instant coins swaps)(Global)
Payeer (Europe, Asia, alternative to paypal)
Bitfinex 
Coinbase (USA, EU, Africa) Get $10 worth of Bitcoin on your first $100 crypto purchase with this link: http://bit.do/coinbase_join

=== ===

Where I store my crypto

  • Ledger Nano – the best hardware wallet (offline storage)
  • Trezor – also one of the best wallets out there.
  • Exodus – desktop wallet
  • Coinomi – mobile phone wallet with instant coin swap feature
  • Crypto.com – mobile wallet and exchange

Ledger Nano X - The secure hardware wallet

🚩My book “Crypto Jargon A to Z” – the most comprehensive dictionary to date is out now.

r_5z9VFhAGXB4lkIiOver 700 definitions of terms, acronyms and all the crypto slang people use in their market analysis, blogs and media articles related to blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies.
Grab your copy today: www.ojjordan.com/cryptojargon

MERO Currency rebrands to BTCT. Token swap on NOV 20th.

Mero (MRO) Currency token holders beware: there will be a re-branding of MERO taking place on November 20 (2019)

Mero (MRO) Currency token holders beware: there will be a re-branding of MERO taking place on November 20 (2019) and all token holders will be required to swap their current ERC20 tokens for the new, mineable tokens named Bitcoin Token (BTCT).

I can only assume that this re-branding has to do with the falling popularity of the Mero token which started as a deflationary token and made some buzz in the airdrop-loving crypto community. The token was given mainly in the form of airdrops and bounties and it had a potential of price appreciation which sadly did not come to fruition.

The project developers had in mind that the token could switch to a mine-able coin some time in the future and as we see, this is going to happen on November 20th.

Currently you can exchange MRO tokens on these three exchanges:

Should you care to go for the token swap, you will receive the new tokens on 10:1 ratio and only one exchange is in charge with this token swap (for now). That exchange is Altilly.

Here is the official announcement as seen on the BTCT medium page:

“Dear MRO Token Holders,

We are excited to announce a consensus amongst the developers of Mero Currency that we are re-branding and moving to our own hosted blockchain. MRO will be rebranding to BTCT (Bitcoin Token).

When will the swap take place?

This swap will take place on November 20th, 2019. The swap will be automatic on the Altilly platform chaning all MRO to BTCT at a ratio of 10:1. We believe this is fair value as the Bitcoin Token blockchain will have more value being a minable coin.

The old contract address for MRO is: https://etherscan.io/token/0x6ff313fb38d53d7a458860b1bf7512f54a03e968

Important Note and Advise!

Please We Advice each and Everyone of you to make sure your MRO Tokens are moved from your Private wallet to Altilly Exchange well ahead of the swap time. Note, any tokens left after Nov 20th in coinomi, mew or any other exchange will not be able to be swapped for BTCT.

We are excited that this move will garner more value for your investment as well as enable more community involvement and developer involvement in the project.

We are giving all MRO token holders time to move their tokens to a centralized exchange (Altilly) where the swap will take place.

P.S. In light of this change we are slowly starting to re-brand our social profiles (TelegramTwitterGithub) to the new Bitcoin Token branding (BTCT).”

Annotation 2019-10-28 141136

I hope this news comes to you just in time to take action. The MRO price surged shortly after this announcement but that was short-lived. You can choose to sell your tokens in the build-up to the token swap or join the Altilly exchange and move your coins there so that you can get the automatic token-swap. I personally will sell. Either way, it is important that you do not keep our MRO tokens in Coinomi (the wallet that was originally recommended for MRO hodlers) because after Nov 20th, you will not be able to swap them from there, so take action asap.

The website of Bitcoin Token is now live, you can check it out here.